Edwin Gray’s Electro-Magnetic Motor
Ed Gray’s Radiant Energy Motor
An Application of Tesla’s patented
“Apparatus for the Utilization of Radiant Energy”
“Our host says the production prototype that we viewed on the bench had produced
measurements indicating if it was run up to 10,000 rpm, it should produce 1,000 HP.
Now that is a quite incredible claim, that a motor this size could produce;
1000 horsepower = 760 kilowatts = .76 million watts!
“A house with everything in it running pulls a combined load of about 10,000 to 15,000 watts so that single motor would produce enough energy to run 50 homes at 15,000 watts being drawn continuously, include in that, of course a little energy needed, once in a while, to recharge the batteries that run the motor.”
Nikola Tesla is Edwin Gray’s indirect, primary, source
In 1957, a Russian immigrant to the USA, one Alexei Poppoff, showed Edwin Gray a circuit which he said he had been shown by Nikola Tesla. Tesla in his Philadelphia and St Louis lecture in 1893 showed how loads can be powered when a high voltage source is pulsed by magnetically-quenched sparks – this creates DC pulses of very short duration.
Edwin Gray joined up with his next-door neighbor Marvin Cole, who held a Masters degree in Mechanical Engineering and who, unlike Gray, was able to understand the circuitry.
Peter Lindemann points out that Ed Gray’s power conversion tube circuit is effectively a copy of Nikola Tesla’s circuit.
The Ed Gray Power System, the power tube presented to the public by Edwin Gray, operates by generating a series of very short, very sharp pulses using a spark gap.
From 1958 to 1972 Marvin Cole, Ed’s neighbor, working alone, designed and built ever more powerful prototype engines, and it was a small one of these which was tested by Cal-Tech. In this period, Marvin also developed ever more powerful power supplies, which are the really important item in all of this.
In 1967, Ed Gray rejoins Marvin Cole and together from 1967 to 1972, they solicited venture capital and promoted the technology.
Early in 1972, for unknown reasons, Marvin Cole disappeared [was murdered?] and never saw Gray again.
Titles of articles reprinted below
Ed Gray Creates Engine That Consumes No Fuel; Invention Could Change History By 1984
by Tom Valentine
A California inventor has found a way to create limitless electric power without using up fuel — potentially the greatest discovery in the history of mankind.
Edwin Gray Sr., 48, has fashioned working devices that could:
Power every auto, train, truck, boat and plane that moves in this land — perpetually.
Warm, cool and service every American home — without erecting a single transmission line.
Feed limitless energy into the nation’s mighty industrial system — forever.
And do it all without creating a single iota of pollution.
Already, the jovial, self-educated Gray is forcing scientists to uproot their most cherished beliefs about the nature of electromagnetism.
Eventually, his discovery will transform the economic base upon which the society of the entire planet has rested up to this point.
Despite the ever-present danger from the petroleum and other power giants who face business extinction within the decade because of his invention, Gray and his associates in EvGray Enterprises have demonstrated its worth publicly — an act requiring great courage.
And Tattler is proud to report for the first time in America the complete nature of gray’s astounding system.
Displaying the kind of open honesty that made America great, Gray and his partners stress the fact that they want the whole world to benefit from their new technology.
“I won’t allow it to be bought up and buried by big money interests”, Gray told Tattler during the exclusive demonstration.
“I tried for 10 years to get American interests to pay some attention, but I’ve been tossed out of more places than most people ever think of going into.”
Neither government agencies nor private enterprise would listen to Gray, so he turned in frustration to foreign interests. The innovative Japanese were eager to listen.
“As soon as word got out that the Japanese were interested in what we’re doing, the Americans started flocking around.”
Today, the small shop facility in Van Nuys is crawling with visitors from every segment of US industry and finance.
“The big money boys from Wall Street started coming around”, Gray said with a touch of defiance in his tone.
“A bunch of them came in and suggested I file bankruptcy and get rid of all my backers and friends. Then they talked about giving me 20 million shares of a new corporation at $25 a share.”
Gray was being offered a deal worth more than $4 billion — on paper.
“That sure sounded rich, but I know darn well they would have fixed it up to sell that corporation off somewhere for a dollar and leave me holding 20 million shares of nothing.”
The key men at EvGray include Richard B. Hackenberger, an electronics engineer who formerly worked for Sony and Sylvania corporations and the US Navy; and Fritz Lens, a former Volkswagen mechanic who knows nearly as much about the fantastic electrical system as Gray.
click on image to read enlargement
All the corporate officers agreed that they are determined to get around the money roadblocks and bestow the discovery upon the world.
Tattler was given a thorough demonstration of Gray’s “impossible-but-true” methods for using electricity.
The first demonstration proved that Gray uses a totally different form of electrical current — a powerful, but “cold” form of the energy.
A 6-volt car battery rested on a table. Lead wires ran from the battery to a series of capacitors which are the key to Gray’s discovery. The complete system was wired to two electromagnets, each weighing a pound and a quarter.
“Now, if you tried to charge those two magnets with juice form that battery and make them do what I’m going to make them do, you would drain the battery in 30 minutes and the magnets would get extremely hot”, Gray explained.
“I want you to watch what happens.”
As Lens activated the battery, a voltmeter gradually rose to 3,000 volts, At that point, Gray closed a switch and there was a loud popping sound. The top magnet hurled into the air with tremendous force and was caught by Hackenberger. A terrific jolt of electricity had propelled the top magnet more than two feet into the air — but the magnet remained cold.
“The amazing thing”, Hackenberger said, “is that only 1% of the energy was used — 99% went back into the battery.”
Gray explained, “The battery can last for a long time, because most of the energy returns to it. The secret to this is in the capacitors and in being able to split the positive.”
When Gray said “split the positive”, the faces of two knowledgeable physicists screwed up in bewilderment. Normally, electricity consists of positive and negative particles. But Gray’s system is capable of using one or the other separately and effectively.
“He means we have to rewrite the physics textbooks”, Hackenberger grinned. It has been the engineer’s job in recent months to formulate gray’s system and put it into writing.
“That’s not an easy job because this system actually defies everything I’ve ever learned.”
Gray said, “I never had no schooling in electronics or physics, so nobody told me it was impossible.”
The “impossible” part of the demonstration was the lack of heat generated in the magnet. Heat is one of the biggest problems faced by electrical technology. Also “impossible” is the fact that only the “positive” nature of the energy was used.
“This thing is in its infancy”, Gray explained. “When the full potential of American technology starts working with it, the results will astound everyone.”
A further proof that he has an unusual source of power with unlimited potential was demonstrated next.
“We’ve been popping those magnets apart for the past 18 months with the same battery and it’s still got a full charge. Now I want you to watch this”
Gray showed this Tattler reporter a small 15-amp motorcycle battery. It was hooked up to a pair of his capacitors which in turn were hooked up to a panel of outlets.
He flicked a switch and the tiny battery sent a charge into the capacitors. He then plugged in six 15-watt electric bulbs on individual cords — and a 110-volt portable television set and two radios. The bulbs burned brightly, the television played, and both radios blared — and yet, the small battery was not discharging.
Also see more images at Keelynet
“You couldn’t get all this current out of that battery under ordinary circumstances”, Gray said.
“This is the most amazing thing I’ve ever seen!” exclaimed C.V. Wood Jr, president of the McCulloch Oil Corporation, who was also present at the demonstration. He began looking for hidden outlets from the wall.
“May I prove it doesn’t come from any wall plug?” Gray offered.
A 40-watt light bulb screwed into an ordinary extension socket was plugged into the panel powered by gray’s system. The bulb lit, then Gray dropped it into a cylinder filled with water.
“What would be happening if this was getting ordinary power right now?” Gray asked, as he stuck his hand in the water with the glowing light bulb.
“You’d be electrocuted and that thing would be popping and sputtering until the fuses blew”, Wood replied.
This reporter then put his finger into the water with the light — no shock.
“Gentlemen, this is a new manifestation of electricity”, Hackenberger said.
The engineer told the astounded onlookers that no laws of physics were being violated, but a new application of electricity has been discovered and put to work.
Gray, one of 14 children, comes from Washington DC. As a small boy, he was fascinated by electricity, magnets, and gadgets in general.
“I really got excited about electricity when they tested the first radar across the Potomac in 1936. I was 11 years old then and visions of buck Rogers danced in my head.”
He learned about radar during his World War II hitch in the Navy and “I’ve been messing around with coils and capacitors ever since”.
He learned to “split the positive” in 1958 and spent the next dozen years finding the funds to put his discovery to work.
Any abbreviated explanation of Gray’s system is an over-simplification of the technical aspects of this tremendous breakthrough, but some of the best minds in the US are now working with Gray to further improve his discovery.
Gray held the 40-watt bulb up out of the water and said: ” You know, to light this bulb takes millions of dollars in power plant facilities, transmission lines, and circuitry. With my capacitors, I can provide power to any home for a couple hundred dollars.”
The economic impact of that statement is beyond the imagination — not to mention the ecology and anti-pollution benefits.
History of Ed Gray – (doc)
Download the story of how Ed Gray and
Marvin Cole developed the magnet motor
“Two Inventors Work To Devise Fuelless Car”
by Tom Valentine
Merging an electromagnetic motor with an all-plastic body and chassis, two pioneering inventors will put the first fuelless automobile into production and on sale this year.
The revolutionary machine is being called “that car of the future” for Americans today.
“We have the answer to the energy crisis”, declared Edwin Gray, the Van Nuys, CA inventor who revolutionized the use of electricity by producing an electromagnetic motor using an ordinary auto battery that does not wear down in a few short miles.
“Our system can eventually solve the world’s fuel and pollution problems”, Gray told Tattler.
Paul M. Lewis, inventor of the “Fascination”, an ultra-modern, “three-point road contact”, all-plastic auto. His car of the future lists a number of engineering advantages over today’s models, and the EMA motor will slowly replace internal combustion engines
Although it looks like a “three-wheeled” car, the Fascination actually has four wheels. The two front wheels are set close together. It is similar to the front wheels of an aircraft. Thus the name for Lewis’ corporation — Highway Aircraft Corp.
The 77-year-old inventor told Tattler, “Mr. Gray has promised delivery of his EMA motor by March of 1974 and we’ll get our car on the road shortly afterwards.”
Lewis, a veteran of many hassles with the auto-oil monopoly, was finally forcing his way to the marketplace with an all-new auto design when he heard about the EMA motor.
“We had an advantage over standard cars even with our Renault engine. But, with this motor, the big boys don’t have a chance unless they get up to date,” the fiery inventor told Tattler. “I’ve battled the industry tooth and nail for years now, and now we’re coming on strong.”
In 1936, Lewis designed a three-wheeled car that looked a lot like the present Volkswagen bug. He called it the “Airmobile”, and his original model is still on display at Harrah’s auto Museum in Reno, NV.
Though he hid not know what Dr. Ferdinand Porsche was doing in Germany, the Lewis Airmobile was amazingly similar to the popular VW beetle.
Both vehicles were low cost, simplistic in design, used horizontal opposed four-cylinder air-cooled engines, transaxles, independent suspension systems and unitized body construction.
When World War II came along, it sent VW soaring in Germany, but killed the Airmobile. Porsche fit into the German establishment, but Lewis was a “crackpot” inventor and a pain in the neck to the economic status quo.
The VW beetle’s popularity proves that Lewis’ original idea was valid and worthy, despite the laughter from Detroit.
The Airmobile was driven out of business in the late 1930s by the Securities and Exchange Commission and the U.S. Postal Department, who have been called bureaucratic flunkies for the oil-auto monopoly.
“I was harassed for two years and they refused to let me sell stock in my company on the pretense they were investigating possible wrongdoing”, Lewis said. “After I was beaten down, they sent representatives to tell me they found nothing wrong and I could sell stock. A man can’t make a dead horse walk.”
After losing the Airmobile, despite driving it through 26 states for more than 45,000 miles without a repair, Lewis went from Denver to Los Angeles, where he continued inventing.
His inventions made him financially solvent and he charged back into the auto business.
He planned to use his own “boilerless” steam engine in Fascination until the EMA motor came along.
A model of Ed Gray’s motor is on display at Lewis’ Highway Aircraft Corp., headquarters in Sidney, NE.
“We will eventually have stock to sell, but at this time we simply want the public to keep abreast of our progress”, Lewis told Tattler.
Although still in the embryo stage, the merger of the two inventions promises to keep America in the technological forefront of the world.
The first prototype car cost Lewis more than $200,000 to build and the first prototype EMA motor ran close to $1 million to build.
“We will eventually tool up for mass production and bring the costs down considerably”, Lewis said. “But the first 100,000 or so fascination cars with the EMA motor will cost the public about $2 per pound. Today’s cars cost about $1 per pound, but we’re almost twice as light.”
The buying public will pay an estimated $5,000 for the Fascination with the EMA motor.
Although the Fascination will be priced with moderate cars and more expensive than economy cars, the savings on fuel and repair costs quadruple its value.
The body of Fascination will be made of Royalex, a tough rubber-like Uniroyal product.
To insure that his radical design will be practical and not only meet but surpass all safety standards, Lewis has contracted with two of the best automobile engineers in the world.
Visioneering, Inc. (Fraser, MI) is concentrating on the Fascination in order to insure it does everything Lewis claimed.
Richard Hackenberger, the electronics engineering expert hired by Gray to put his motor to work on a practical basis, explained how the new car will operate:
“Because we are not taking current directly from the batteries, but rather are supplementing the static charge which operates the system, we are getting fantastic efficiency.
“Of course, further research and development will eventually allow a motorist to drive across the nation without recharging his batteries, but we estimate a family could drive 500 miles at highway speeds without recharging.”
Hackenberger said the 500-mile estimate is a “conservative” one and is applicable to a car using air-conditioning or heating and radio.
“Just driving around town, the EMA will last a lot longer without recharging”, he said.
The engine will run in any temperature and there is no noise, no cooling system, and no exhaust fumes.
“The battery will go to work when the key is turned on and the light on the dash will glow while the starter motor builds the rotor up to speed. The light is used instead of a tachometer and it will only take a few seconds for the motor to build up and be ready to go.”
Hackenberger was quick to explain, “We do not have perpetual motion here. We have an electrostatic generating system and a capacitor bank doing some very efficient work. The principle is based on a modification of Ohm’s Law.”
The power for the motor is generated by magnetic repulsion. Engineers have tested the motor and it develops 100 horsepower at the brake.
“This means we are as powerful as any standard internal combustion car on the road today. The inefficiency of the internal combustion engine is the reason”, he said.
Ed Gray’s Gasless Auto Gets $6-Million Backing
by Tom Valentine
The man who first told the world through a Tattler article that he had invented a no-fuel engine capable of providing electricity at half today’s cost has received more than $6 million to develop his machine.
“We’re finally out of the woods”, inventor Edwin Gray, president of EvGray Enterprises (Van Nuys, CA), told Tattler.
“We’ve been struggling against the big business monopoly (against the marketing of new types of power plants) for years in this country, but finally made it — and we did it without going to foreigners.”
Gray’s revolutionary ideas in power production were first made public in this periodical last summer. The inventor has received additional funds to develop an automobile motor for an all-new plastic car to be called “Fascination”.
He plans to build a battery substation to supply 100 megawatts of electricity at peak periods while expending only 40 kilowatts doing so, using cobalt batteries and electromagnetic association motors, which he developed.
This goal has been disputed by many “experts”, who claim Gray and his company may be perpetrating some kind of hoax.
Gray’s ElectroMagnetic Association (EMA) motor is not perpetual motion or any mystery, he stressed, but rather a unique blending of three known forces to make energy.
“Using static electricity isn’t new, neither is recycling power or activating electromagnets, but Ed Gray simply became the first to put all three together with the right combination”, Richard Hackenberger, his aide, told Tattler.
Whether it’s driving a car or generating power, the EMA system works the same.
The motor draws small amounts of direct current from a battery and blends it with static electricity to make the static “work”.
The static charge then activates the electromagnets, the engineer explained.
Tests conducted this past September by Crosby Research Institute (Beverly Hills, CA) showed the original EMA prototype motor had a “measured overall system efficiency exceeding 99%”.
Crosby Engineering director J. A. Maize conducted the intensive testing on behalf of Pan World Enterprises Company, Ltd., a Japanese conglomerate.
Maize operated the motor into a 10-horsepower dynamometer load at 1,100 rpm, a power output of 7,460 watts.
But the batteries used in the test were only capable of 5,454 watts per hour. Therefore, the motor was making its own electricity while it worked — and using absolutely no fuel in the process.
“The system will operate continuously for 203 hours at 10 horsepower and 1,100 rpm without recharge since the total battery power consumed is only 26.8 watts per hour”, Maize said.
“Recycling of the batteries during non-operational periods would permit continuous system operation until the end of battery life.”
Since those tests, however, the EvGray people have further improved their system.
Funds to develop the generating plant have been provided by a trio of wealthy US geologists who made fortunes in oil exploration, but now feel a new source of energy is mandatory for the world, Gray told Tattler.
“The men who financed this project don’t want their names released to the public”, he said. “They’re seeking electricity, not publicity.”
When Gray and “Fascination” car designer Paul Lewis announced plans to have the fuelless car on the road by the end of 1974, he already had improved the motor to the point where he could drive the car at normal speeds for more than 500 miles between rechargings.
“But since we are estimating, we are being ultra-conservative”, Hackenberger insisted. “We now plan to have a prototype car on the test track by the end of summer.”
Original plans called for the car to be in prototype earlier, “but lawyers, not our system, held us up”, Gray added.
Gray now is beginning negotiations with foreign groups after refusing the temptation for years while waiting for some developments in the US.
“The Italian government is very interested”, Gray told Tattler. “We were told by one representative that they wanted to develop this source of power quickly because they never want to look at another Arab as long as they live.”
(Pomona, CA) July 7, 1975
Either Saint or Sinner ~ Auto Motor Inventor, Ed Gay, Just Fueling Around?
Los Angeles (AP) : Edwin Gray, a self-educated inventor, says he has designed a car motor that needs no fuel. Hundreds of investors have put their money on it.
But local authorities have charged him with bilking his believers out of thousands of dollars. A specialist in energy engineering saw the prototype motor and said if it worked, “it would violate all the laws of physics”
In the eyes of Gray’s supporters, it is a case of a small-time inventor being harassed because he is on the trail of a revolutionary idea that challenges the auto establishment.
If allowed to develop his invention, Gray said, “This motor will probably replace most motor power in the very near future.”
Claims for the device have varied over the past four years, according to the Los Angeles County district attorney’s office, but essentially it has been described as an electromagnetic motor” that is started by a set of batteries, then runs virtually on its own and puts energy back into the batteries — enough so that they need charging only infrequently.
“If it did what he says it would violate all the laws of physics”, said Donald Cronin, a staff scientist at TRW Systems, Inc., who watched a test of the motor about a year ago.
“It ran for about 10 seconds and then everything blew”, he said. “A group of scientists from a big research firm in Japan had come with an elaborate amount of equipment — gauges, instruments, and TV cameras — and were ready to sign a letter of intent. After the test, they packed it all up and went back to Japan.”
Gray, 50, says he has been toying with the idea for such an engine since he was 7 years old. He is almost boastful about his lack of scientific training. “The technical people tell me that if I had a technical background I wouldn’t have come up with a motor like this”, he says.
Gray began selling shares in his invention in 1971 and attracted some 800 shareholders. Last July investigators from the district attorney’s office seized the prototype engine, plans, drawings and bookkeeping records. It was not until May that charges were filed against gray — one count of conspiracy to commit grand theft, eight counts of grand theft, and three counts of a securities violation.
Gray’s attorneys’ cite the 10-month delay as one sign of harassment. A national tabloid newspaper attacked the D.A.’s office for its “behind-the-scenes suppression of one man’s effort to help mankind”. This kind of talk frustrates the investigators, who see themselves as acting to protect lay investors who aren’t able to distinguish a technically complicated fraud from a valid research effort.
Edwin Gray must be persuasive, though: two investigators from the D.A.’s office “went down to see and got hustled themselves — they invested money of their own for a while, but later got it back”, said Deputy D.A. Mitchell Harris.
As to why the case has taken so long to prosecute, authorities say that, in the first place, it has been hard to find investors willing to press charges. The D.A.’s office also points out that the investigators were busy with other cases they considered more pressing, and this kept them form wrapping up the gray investigation.
Ed Gray, Inventor of the World’s First No-Fuel Engine is Suppressed by L.A.’s District Attorney
by Tom Valentine
Editor’s Note: On July 1, 1973, Tattler
published a story announcing the invention of a remarkable “fuelless engine” capable of powering an automobile. The engine, invented by Ed Gray and named the EMS motor, functioned on an electromagnetic principle that allowed it to regenerate its own power.
At the time, Tattler predicted the Gray engine would revolutionize the auto industry. We also published Gray’s announcement to have automobiles containing the engine in production an available to the public by the end of 1974. That obviously has not happened yet, and for a very good reason.
For the past seven months, Gray has been the victim of an incredible campaign of obvious harassment by the Los Angeles District Attorney’s office. This harassment appears to be yet another chapter in a long history of attempts to suppress any automobile invention that might disrupt the status quo for auto manufacturing as established by Detroit’s car-making giants.
Tattler was warned not to print this story until the issue was settled in court. We are printing it because the public has a right to know what is happening and because it has become obvious that the district attorney has no intention of seeking a quick decision in the case. In this exclusive report, Articles Editor Tom Valentine reveals the sordid, behind-the-scenes suppression of one man’s effort to help mankind.
“Threat of Arrest Spurs Tattler Reporter”
At one point during his investigation of the Ed Gray EMS motor case, Tattler Articles Editor Tom Valentine was threatened with arrest if he pursued the matter.
The threat came from Ran Novell, an investigator with the Los Angeles District Attorney’s office. When Valentine telephoned the district attorney’s office to inquire why the DA had kept the gray case pending five months without bringing formal charges, Novell snapped back: “I’m advising you of your rights. You have the right to remain silent because anything you say may be used against you in a court of law.”
“I don’t have anything to say. I’m simply trying to ask questions”, replied Valentine. “Well, you might be indicted as a co-conspirator in this case”, said Novell. “You’ve got to be kidding”, said Valentine.
Later, Valentine expressed his opinion that the threat was nothing more than an attempt to”scare me away from the case”. “But if that was what he was trying to do he couldn’t have picked a worse tactic. All he succeeded in doing was making me resolve to get to the bottom of this”, said Valentine.
The effort of Ed Gray to produce a fuelless automobile engine that could greatly benefit mankind has been blocked by the Los Angeles District Attorney’s Office.
Gray is the inventor of the EMS motor — a remarkable electromagnetic engine that regenerates its own power, thus eliminating the need for liquid fuel. Gray had intended to have his motor in production and available to the general public by the end of 1974. However, a series of confrontations with the L.A. District Attorney’s office has completely stymied his efforts.
Gray’s problems began last July 22, when L.A. authorities raided his plant in Van Nuys, CA. Virtually everything in the building was confiscated — including his working prototype motor. Seven months later, not a single charge has been brought against Gray. Yet, the L.A. District Attorney’s office still has his records and engine models.
The Van Nuys raid is only the latest incident in a strange pattern of “non-arrests” of automotive inventors that dates back more than half a century. In a continuing investigation of this phenomenon, Tattler has documented dozens of cases in which inventors came up with “a better idea” for an automobile engine, only to be harassed into tragic situations ranging from bankruptcy to suicide.
One example was the invention of the Lewis automobile more than 40 years ago. In 1933, Paul Lewis invented a three-wheeled car powered by an air-cooled engine. Called the “Airmobile”, Lewis’ product proved itself in road tests. But when he began selling stock in his company in order to obtain capital to mass-produce the vehicle, the Securities and Exchange Commission stopped him. For years the SEC kept Lewis “under investigation” without bringing any formal charges. Finally, he was harassed into bankruptcy. “Once I was bankrupt the SEC dropped its investigation and told me I was clear to continue”, Lewis recalled during a recent interview with Tattler. “All I could do was swear at them and ask them if they knew any way I could make a dead horse walk.” Today Lewis’ “Airmobile” can be seen in a museum at Harrah’s Club in Reno, NV.
Yet another example of such suppression is found in the history of the John Robert Fish carburetors. Fish invented a carburetor that double the gas mileage of Detroit’s standard carburetors. When Detroit snubbed his invention, Fish tried selling his invention through the mails to do-it-yourself mechanics. He was growing successful when Post Office Department agents swooped down on him for “investigation of fraud”. Several years later he was exonerated of any charges. But not until the mails to and from his business were stopped during a lengthy “investigation”. He was wiped out financially.
A modern case is that of the LaForce brothers, presently locked in a controversy with the Environmental Protection Agency, which yet another branch of our huge federal bureaucracy. The LaForce brothers are outstanding mechanics and automotive engineers from Vermont who have designed and built an improved auto engine.
The LaForce engine was tested by the EPA last fall and government spokesmen announced they were impressed. It looked like a small time inventor had finally broken through the bureaucratic curtain. Hardly a week passed after the impressive EPA tests when it was announced that the LaForce engine, though more efficient regarding mileage, was more polluting. Ed LaForce told Tattler: “That’s a crock of you know what! I don’t know what their motive is, but we conducted very thorough tests before going to the EPA.” The LaForce brothers are not barnyard operators; they own and operate extremely sophisticated equipment and they know what their engine can do.
Like Ed Gray’s case, the LaForce controversy is just beginning. On July 1, 1973, Tattler exclusively reported Ed Gray’s discovery. Using electricity, he had found a way to drive a car without fuel, without pollution, and without noise. The motor can be used to generate enough power to drive a car while recharging its own batteries — providing practically perpetual power with super-efficiency.
On January 27, 1974, Tattler followed up with the story of how Gray and Paul Lewis were planning to put the EMS motor in the “Fascination” auto body designed by Lewis. At that time, Gray said his system would need two banks of batteries and recharging would be accomplished simply because batteries could not take the charge rapidly enough.
Lewis and Gray could not get together financially and their plans changed. Gray’s attorney, Joel Ward, filled Tattler in on the details since the July 22 raid. “Despite the action by the D.A.’s office, I am unaware of any of the 800 stockholders in EvGray Enterprises demanding their money back. “I am aware that some of the stockholders have offered more money, which is certainly indicative of their confidence in gray’s inventions.”
Ward said that the company is in the process of thoroughly testing and evaluating a new prototype EMS motor. “It is apparent that the academic scientists have taken issue with Ed Gray’s layman’s language”, Ward said. “Here’s an inventor with only a high school education telling scientists that he can do something totally new to them, and saying so in language they cannot accept. We are in the process of fully explaining the new concepts in scientific terms”, Ward added.
The attorney stressed that the US Patent office has notified him that every claim for the Gray motor has been accepted and the patent will therefore be issued.
“This means they accept the novelty of his motor. Now we are testing the prototype to determine what it’s optimum capabilities are.” Ward said that separate patents will be filed on Gray’s innovative energy process. Ward said the company has not wanted additional trouble, and therefore they have maintained a low key approach to the D.A.’s actions. Ward added: “I’m not going to discuss what we night do at this time. From a legal standpoint it might not be wise.”
Many people close to the controversy have wondered aloud why Gray doesn’t sue the D.A. for the apparent harassment. Ward refused to comment on a possible suit, but Tattler learned that no suit can be field until the case is closed. As things stand it is an “ongoing” investigation.
The investigator in charge, Ran Novell, told Tattler that, “We’re going to charge Gray with grand theft for taking money under fraudulent pretenses. His motor doesn’t do what he claims. All he has is a starter motor run by some batteries”. However, Novell also admitted that no one in the D.A.’s office had tested the motor — or even started it.
Since Tattler has been diligent in checking Gray’s claims before publishing the first story, such a charge came as a surprise. A number of scientists pronounced the engine sound and workable before the initial story was printed. Novell said that the original search warrant was based on a complaint by a former, and apparently disgruntled, employee. The D.A.’s investigator, who is not an attorney, said there were also earlier complaints about stock sales.
As of this writing the charges are still “pending” and nothing has been resolved. Normally, in cases of invention fraud, stockholders clamor for their money back and the inventor declares bankruptcy.
“I know a lot of people want us to get going and bring this invention out right now”, Gray told Tattler, “and we’re doing everything we can.” “I wrote the D.A.’s office last April when I first heard of the investigation and stated our willingness to cooperate”, Ward said.
“My letter was ignored and they raided the facility. Then, and this is unheard of, after the raid I made another offer to cooperate, which was also ignored.” Ward said that he submitted written expert opinion to Novell’s office in the belief that Novell would exchange expert opinions. “They have our expert’s opinion in writing, but I’m still waiting for theirs”, Ward said. Tattler has learned from a source within the D.A.’s office that it is general knowledge that Novell is “persecuting” rather than “prosecuting” the case.
conflicting stories about Ed Gray’s Death
The truth about Ed Gray is that he died in April 1993 in a trailer in Riverside, California where he lived with his girlfriend Dorothy. About 2AM, Ed was home alone when something happened and he was later found dead. The police told her he had a heart attack.
Our contact, being a close friend of Ed, was called by Dorothy after the body had been removed by the Riverside police. Although the police said it was a heart attack, our contact noticed a blood stain about 3-5″ in diameter on the carpet where Ed’s body had lain until Dorothy discovered it.
Ed was ‘healthy as a horse’ despite being a big guy, though he did have a smokers hack because he smoked one cigarette after another, but he had no history of heart problems to our contacts knowledge. When our contact asked the policeman why there was a blood stain where Ed had apparently fallen, the policeman said he ‘probably’ struck his head on a counter and blood came from his mouth.
When our contact questioned the detective at the police stationhouse, he was told Gray was very paranoid because he had bilked many investors out of large sums of money and so was always afraid someone would come after him. The detective said a drunken woman had mistook Ed’s trailer for her own and it was she who pounded on the door at 2AM which scared Ed so badly that he had a heart attack and died.
Yet a 3rd story given by another policemen was that Ed opened the door at 2AM and this drunk woman shot Ed thinking it was her philandering husband.
Our contact says this is a ‘load of crap’, confirming that Gray was a big burly man with no history of any heart condition, that he chain smoked and had a smokers hack, but nothing else, was strong as a horse and afraid of nothing.
Since he died alone, by law there had to be an autopsy, yet when our contact tried to get a copy of that autopsy report as a public record, no record could be found that one had been done. It is possible that one was not ordered, however, on further investigation, our contact says he found no records that an Ed Gray ever lived in Riverside, Van Nuys or in Council, Idaho, all have disappeared.
At one period prior to the actual building of the five production motors from 1986 to 1989, our contact told us that Gray had lived with his sister and her minister husband Reverend Dearing in California, where he was supported by doing work for the church.
The story is very fascinating and our contact told us two other principles who were deeply involved with Ed Gray had also died under mysterious circumstances and that it was after Ed’s death when all the mystery started and the motors disappeared. Turns out these two motors were outside a building, subjected to rain and weather, so are not ready for testing. The capacitors used in the capacitor banks have been long ago removed or damaged and are being restored.
also see family emails about his death:
“The Engine That Runs Itself”
by Jack Scagnetti
Newspaper Headlines from January, 1973: “Rationing in Effect as Winter Catches US Short of Fuel ~ Fuel Shortage May Curtail Rail Service ~ Smog-Proofed Autos Choking on Own Fumes ~ US May Approve Gasoline Rationing ~ Pace Picks up in Quest for Clean Engines”
Catastrophic problems, aren’t they? Not only are we taking more out of the earth than the earth has to give, but we’re also using what we take to ruin the air above.
Sitting in a small laboratory in Van Nuys, California, is a curious creation which, based on the merits of dynamometer tests and other rigid trials, claims to be the solution. It’s called the EMA (Electro-Magnetic Association) motor and, in technical jargon, is described as “digital-pulsed, “time-phased”, and “servo-controlled”. Developed by EvGray Enterprises, an independent research and development firm, the unique engine runs on the principle of electromagnetic transformation.
In terms more meaningful to the layman, the EMA motor requires no fossil fuel, recycles its own energy, creates no waste, and is extremely quiet. Its size, weight and horsepower ratios are comparable to motors and turbines now in use.
The EMA’s only external power source consists of four 6-volt batteries which never need recharging and which have the same life expectancy as the standard automobile battery. EvGray claims the motor duplicates the power and torque characteristics of internal combustion engines of similar size and weight, and the Federal and State Air Resources Board has granted the inventors a permit to further prove this claim by installing the EMA in test vehicles.
Edwin Gray, Sr, president of EvGray, predicts production costs of the EMA will be comparable to present motors and maintenance costs will be far less, “The EMA motor promises to make the world a cleaner place in which to live”, says Gray, who has spent 12 years developing the engine. “Perfection of the EMA motor as a generating source could means the availability of inexpensive power to underdeveloped nations.”
EvGray expects the EMA motor — when tailored for specific applications — to become a desired replacement for virtually all power systems now in use
Lightning and “Energy Spikes”
Gray describes the operation of his EMA motor as “similar to recreating lightning”. He says the engineering and scientific world has known this recreation is possible but hasn’t known how to do it. “When lightning hits the ground, causing a 10-million volt buildup, where does the energy come from to make it from a static charge to a lethal charge? Nobody really knows.”
Richard B. Hackenberger, Sr., vice-president in engineering for EvGray, explains how the EMA system operates” “Power from the high-voltage section is put through a system of electrical circuitry to produce a series of high-voltage ‘energy spikes’. The spikes are transferred to a small control unit, which in turn operates the major motor unit. The control unit, acting in a manner similar to that of a distributor in an internal combustion engine, regulates the spikes, determines their polarity (whether they be north or south) and directs their power to selected electromagnets in the main unit. While this occurs, the recycle/regeneration system is recharging the batteries with 60 to 120-amp pulses. The electromagnets are located on both the rotor and stator of the large motor. Attraction and repulsion between the two sets of magnets causes the motor to operate and generate horsepower. Once in motion, the motor recharges the batteries as a result of the recycle/regeneration system. To prevent condensation in the main cylinder, a half-pound of air pressure has to be maintained. Air is routed through the programmer for functional purposes. When the ambient temperature is 90 degrees, the motor operates at 170 degrees.”
In short, the principle of the engine is to create electricity and recycle energy by the factor that every time magnets are energized off the peak of transients, a charge goes back into the battery. It’s not a constant charge, but a pulse charge of 60 amps or better; thus, the battery must be of high quality. The batteries for the EMA motor are furnished by McCulloch Electronic Corporation of Los Angeles. After extensive research and testing, EvGray chose the model 110-75 Energy Center, which is said to produce maximum power for its weight and volume over an exceptionally long life span. This is achieved partly by use of an ultra-lightweight plastic case that minimizes dead weight (energy-storing components comprise more than 90% of the battery’s weight). Features of the battery include extra-large plates separated by indestructible glass-rubber separators and a specially formulated lead oxide composition. Two of the 6-volt batteries are used for operation, while the other two serve as a reservoir. Mallory Electric Corporation of Carson City, NV, has also made a major contribution toward the design of the electronic pulsing system.
Long Range & Powerful
Electric-powered vehicles are not new, of course, but the poor energy-storage factor of batteries and their heavy, large size have thus far made them impractical for use in any vehicles requiring a long-range capacity. This drawback has restricted the market for electric power to small limited-performance vehicles. The maximum range of these vehicles when driven at 40 mph has been approximately 150 miles. Range is affected by the number of starts and stops, grades traversed, and acceleration demands.
The EMA motor needs only to run at 500 rpm for the normal recharging system to work. In fact, its recharging capabilities are such that the EvGray’s next version of the engine won’t have an alternator or air pump. The air pump will be replaced by blades on the rotor.
“The idea of a self-sustaining electric motor”, says Gray, “at first appears to go against much of the theory of electricity and conservation of energy. The EMA motor does not, however, violate the basic laws of physics, but rather utilizes them in a unique integration in a system in order to maximize upon the characteristics and interrelationships between electrical, magnetic, and physical components. The EMA prototype motor has had considerable operating test time and has been adapted to standard and automatic automobile transmissions.”
Dynamometer tests have recorded the rpm’s of EvGray’s motor at 2550 constant, the torque at 66 pounds constant. Brake horsepower is 32.5. After a test run of 21-1/2 minutes, the battery voltage was 25.7.
Only three surfaces male physical contact with the motor, a feature which dramatically limits friction and increases efficiency. “An internal combustion engine is only 30% efficient”, says Gray. “Our engine is 90% efficient”. A Prime factor in friction control is the so-called “magnetic vacuum” created in the drum, which literally takes the pressure off end bearings and allows the rotor to float within the drum.
“Our motor creates power surges — one behind the other — in microseconds”, says Gray. “By doing this, we are able to direct the magnetic flux field. The magnetic flux is a coolant source, so we need no cooling system.”
Gray says the engine is not affected by rain, heat, cold, any other type of inclement weather, or by driving through tunnels: “All this motor needs is oxygen. The external magnetic effect is that another field system cannot operate within this same battery system. The magnetic field orientation is 360 degrees in all directions.”
Light, Easy to Make
The new EMA prototype will weigh about 320 pounds, less than most present internal combustion engines. It will measure 12 inches in diameter, 18 inches in length (Size is linear to horsepower required). According to Gray, further research should make it possible to reduce the size and weight through the use of lighter metals and more sophisticated circuitry.
Gray says most of the motor’s components can be built in a machine shop with a mill and lathe. The exceptions are the drum itself, the electromagnets, and a few miscellaneous items bought over the counter in an auto supply store. The company plans to enter into worldwide licensing agreements to manufacture the motor.
The safety features of the EMA are impressive. There’s no fan, no exposed high-voltage component parts, no exhaust fumes, no fuel tanks to explode, no water reservoirs to clog up, freeze or overheat. EvGray believes the reliability of the engine will be excellent, and maintenance should be minimal because there’s no carbon, water, varnish or other impurities — which occur normally as a result of burning oil or gasoline — to damage parts. There is no carburetor to clean and adjust, no oil filter to change, no gas filter, smog valve, gaskets, radiator, water pump or timing chain. Plug-in type construction makes replacing parts quick and easy. Gray says the training time for EMA mechanics is less than that for mechanics working with a standard electric motor and far less than those preparing to work on internal combustion engines.
The EMA also favors the eardrums of mankind. Its noise emission is far less than that of all other power sources, and Gray claims that there will be no increase in noise as the engine ages. In fact, electric motor noise is almost imperceptible when properly suppressed.
Perhaps the reason Edwin Gray, now 48, has been able to create such an unconventional engine is his unconventional education. One of 14 children, he began tinkering with magnets and electricity as a boy. He left home when he was 15 and served a year in the US Army before it was discovered he was underage and he was given an honorable discharge. During that year he attended an Army school for advanced engineering. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, he reenlisted, this time entering the Navy. After serving three years of combat duty in the pacific zone, he returned to civilian life and found work in the field of mechanics. Resuming his experiments with electromagnetic power, he seriously examined the theory of “energy used is energy spent”.
After years of research and experimentation, gray conducted his first test of the EMA motor in 1961. The engine ran briefly and then broke down. Discouraged but not defeated, he constructed a second electromagnetic motor, which ran for an hour and a half before failing.
A third prototype ran for 32 days attached to various automotive transmissions and test equipment. It was then dismantled for analysis, and detailed reports were prepared. After rejection by large corporations and money promoters, gray formed a limited partnership in 1971 and constructed the fourth EMA prototype. With assistance from nearly 200 private citizens, EvGray Enterprises has spent $1.1 million in the attempt to recycle present lost energy and redirect magnetic energy forces with the EMA motor.
Dick Hackenberger, who comes from a more conventional background, complements Gray’s raw genius with 25 years diversified functional and management experience in the engineering field. He holds an EE degree from Northeastern University and is a senior engineer in the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. Hackenberger also held positions with the Sony Corporation of America and Sylvania Commercial Electronics, and he has served as an engineering consultant to the US Navy.
Other EvGray officials include Arthur M. Lange, vice-president in charge of public relations, and George C. Demos, vice-president in charge of marketing. Lange has served in management and public relations capacities with both Ford and General Motors, while Demos has worked as division general manager for Control Data, director of marketing for RCA, and president of his own manufacturing firm.
Raising a Few Eyebrows
The electromagnetic motor has attracted attention from important government agencies, including the Environmental Protection Agency, the Air Resources Board, and the Department of Transportation. Governor Ronald Reagan of California last year presented ray and his wife, Evelyn, with a certificate of merit. Others indicating interest in the project are congressman Barry Goldwater, Jr, Edward Roybal, Del Clawson, and James Corman, US Senator Alan Cranston, and state senators Alfred Alquist and Nicholas Petris.
John Brogan, head of the Environmental Protection Agency’s advanced automotive power systems development division, says his 25-man staff has looked at approximately 20 alternate engine proposals each week for the past two years. He says nearly half of the proposals are for “perpetual motion” machines; that is, machinery that would produce continuous movement without any outside energy source. The concept of perpetual motion violates all known laws of thermodynamics.
According to EvGray, some experts believe the EMA is a perpetual-motion engine and is, therefore, invalid. Gray himself refutes this belief: “The EMA motor is definitely not perpetual motion. Only those in the scientific world who understand the theories of physics are able to comprehend how our motor works. There’s only a handful of such persons.
“The programmer directs which magnets are to be energized for what length of time and in what polarity. There are several attractions and repulsion taking pace at the same time.”
The search for the clean engine has seen the federal government contribute $23 million to the development of new engines in the past two years. General Motors spent $36 million last year alone, and Ford laid out $20 million. Senator John Tunney of California has proposed legislation to divert $900 million from the Highway trust Fund into a three-year crash program to develop a clean engine.
Meanwhile, Edwin gray, after 12 years of research and development, believes he has found the answer for a comparatively meager $1.1 million. Time will tell whether or not he is right.
EMA-4 Motor Preliminary Test Data
Input Power: 12 volts DC (of a 24 volt DC system, making use of a 12 volt standard starter motor) RPM: 2550 rpm constant
Horsepower: 100 HP Brake HP: 32.05 Foot-pounds/minute: 1,057,650 Foot-pounds/second: 755 lbs (includes 110 lb for four 6-volt batteries) Volume: 42″ long x 18″ wide x 2″ high (overall geometry including control unit, &c. The basic motor is 16″ diameter x 24″ cylinder which can be repackaged into a 9″ diam. x 12″ cylinder) Test Run Time: 21.5 minutes
Battery Voltage Reading at Test Completion: 25.7 volts Ambient Temperature: 84 degrees constant Humidity: 51% Fuel Consumption: None (other than air) Cooling: Conduction 1/2 pound flow-through air pressure Magnetic Field Orientation: 360 degrees all directions during motor operation
Lubrication: High temperature bearing grease Vibration: Negligible Noise Level: No direct reading taken. Without shielding, no louder than small kitchen appliance (e.g., fan, &c) Power Hazard: Fully secure, full design safety features Start Mode: Simple push button, standard 12 volt starter motor Operating Mode: Rheostat principle with switchable rpm range (500-1300-1950-3350-4100 rpm)
Physical Condition: Motor mounted on wheeled test stand; no external connections to stand.
“EMS — Electronic Power That Could Change The World’s Economic Power Picture”
by Tom Valentine
Though harassed by the authorities, under-financed and ignored by science, Edwin V. Gray, a self-educated Los Angeles inventor, has developed a revolutionary electromagnetic motor that promises to greatly improve conditions for the world. A vast new technology is opening because Gray invented a motor that delivers super-efficient horsepower at lower cost with less wear and tear than any other device known. His EMS motor takes us a giant step closer to the magnificent, whirring power plants visualized by science fiction writers. Implications for the auto industry alone are staggering: Gray appears to have the answer to Detroit’s dilemma involving practical electric vehicles.
Ed Gray’s name may well go down in history alongside the likes of Edison, Marconi, Goddard, and Bell — that is, if the establishment will get off his back. A social quality known as “resistance to change” and another called the “economic status quo” have made grays’ struggle to develop and market his motor a tale of bitter frustration. Most people would have quit in despair long ago. However, tireless experimentation and remarkable determination have paid off in a technological triumph that brings the heretofore untapped source of static electricity into the workhouse of man. Any expert can tell you “static electricity will not do work”. Gray is slowly and doggedly proving the experts are wrong.
His battle is not over, but perhaps the tide is turning in his favor. His corporation, EvGray Enterprises, is seeking the necessary financing to further develop the motor. His efforts were thwarted by serious legal problems which recently were resolved when he agreed to enter a guilty plea to a minor Securities and Exchange violation. Thus nearly two years of legal entanglements came to a close. The legal costs alone have been near ruinous. He’s won some important battles, but he could yet lose the war.
Gray’s start in life wasn’t promising. He was one of six children of a poor Washington DC family and grew up in the streets. Few suspected he had the stuff of a genius. Like many kids, he was fascinated by engines and motors, but his thinking about them went gar beyond normal curiosity. He wanted to know more than just what made them run. Gray dropped out of school at 14 and began tinkering with ideas. He was so lacking in formal education that he did not realize for some time that his thinking was both original and far-advanced.
Three things about electricity fascinated him: (1) a capacitor can store an electric charge and release it on demand, (2) pulses of electricity can be sent out and brought back, (3) lightning bolts seem to be more powerful when closer to the earth where the atmosphere is heaviest.
These were facts known to every physicist. But to most such scientists, they were unrelated facts. Ed Gray’s genius was in correlating this knowledge into a new technology. “I remember getting a shock when I grabbed a charged capacitor off a work bench”, he recalled. “That simple fact never left my mind. Then I watched when the government people were testing the first radar across the Potomac River — it stuck in my mind when one of the men explained it as ‘pulse out, pulse back’.
“And I’ve always been a nut about thunderstorms. I watched lightning by the hours. I noticed how much stronger it appeared to be when closer to the earth and just naturally concluded that more air had something to do with it.” These three principles, plus a super-secret means of generating and mixing static electricity, make up Gray’s EMS motor.
Gray grew to adulthood, married, divorced, and married again. For 22 years, the idea of a special new kind of motor turned over and over in his mind. Meanwhile, he had moved to Southern California where he maintained a workshop and sought the advice of knowledgeable men. Bit by bit, his ideas began to take shape.
By 1973, Gray was pounding the pavement seeking financial backers. Over the years he picked up 788 stockholders, all friends or friends of friends. This fact was to stand Gray in good stead later when the Los Angeles District Attorney hit him with questionable charges of fraud. From 1957 to 1972, gray raised about $2 million to make the EMS motor a reality. That same year he incorporated and built the first working model.
Still, more money was a big need. He approached top electronics and automotive firms such as General Dynamics, Rockwell International, Ford, General Motors and the like. Usually he was turned away. “When they did listen to me and got a little interested, it turned out they wanted 90%. Then it was I who did the turning away”, he said.
Gray had interested some top experts, though, men who offered the benefits of their knowledge to his fledgling firm. They included Richard B. Hackenberger, an electronics engineer who had served Sony and Sylvania, as well as Fritz Lens, a master machinist who understood what Gray was trying to accomplish. In Spring 1973, Gray and his associates unveiled the EMS motor to the world. In the workshop, a 6-volt car battery rested on a table. Lead wires ran from the battery to a series of capacitors which are the key to Gray’s discovery. The complete system was wired to two electromagnets, each weighing a pound and a quarter. The first demonstration proved that Gray was using a totally different form of electrical current — a powerful but “cold” form of the energy.
As the test started, Gray said: “Now if you tried to charge those two magnets with juice from the battery and make them do what I’m going to make them do, you would drain the battery in 30 minutes and the magnets would get extremely hot.” Fritz Lens activated the battery. A voltmeter indicated 3,000 volts. Gray threw a switch and there was a loud popping noise. The top magnet flew off with a powerful force. Richard Hackenberger caught it with his bare hands. What had happened was that Gray had used a totally different form of electrical current — a “cold” form of energy. The fact that Hackenberger caught the magnet and was not burned was evidence enough of that. It was a moment in history perhaps as important as the day in 1877 when Thomas Edison threw a switch which lit up a glass bulb that continued to glow all that day and part of the next. The demonstration was witnessed by two unbiased experts and the author of this article, who later printed the story of what he had seen in a national publication. “The amazing thing is that only a small per cent of the energy was used. Most of it went back into the battery”, Hackenberger said. Actually, two “improbables” had been demonstrated that day. The second was characterized by lack of heat generated in the magnet, excessive heat being one of the bg drawbacks in utilizing electronics advancements.
The successful test seemed to be Ed Gray’s big break. In reality, his real troubles were just beginning. The publicity about the test brought Gray to the attention of a firm in Denver which agreed to back him with several million in new capital over a period of a few years.
At the time, Gray planned to test-market the EMS motor in a radically new auto body called the “Fascination”, developed by Paul Lewis of Sidney, Nebraska. The first prototypes were due on January 1, 1974. But then mysterious things started to happen — misfortunes Gray suspects were created by persons working to undermine his motor’s development. The Fascination trial was dropped.
In July 1974, raiders from the Los Angeles District Attorney’s office descended on Gray’s plant in Van Nuys. They confiscated plans, records, and the latest working prototype of the motor. Investigators for the D.A. threatened to file a variety of charges against Gray, ranging from fraud to grand theft. Yet months passed and no charges were brought. The investigators defied all attempts by the inventor’s lawyers to get the confiscated materials returned. Meanwhile, the D.A.’s men sought out Gray’s investors and tried to convince them to prefer charges against him. All refused. Finally, eight months after the raid, the D.A.’s office brought a series of charges against Gray, including grand theft, by claiming he had raised money from investors by means of a hoax. But all the serious charges were dropped when it was proved they were unfounded.
Remaining were two minor counts of violating SEC regulations. In late March 1976, Gray pleaded guilty to these misdemeanors, paid a fine and was freed. The long-drawn legal hassle had other serious consequences. The major financing promised by the Denver firm was cut off after only a fraction of the money had dribbled in. Fortunately, there was enough to enable Gray to build a second prototype engine.
Today Gray is very careful in the claims he makes for his motor. Even to discuss that which has already been proved to the satisfaction of skeptical scientists could bring the law down on his head again. “There has been a lot more to the suppression of my ideas than meets the eye”, he said. “It is a wonder we have survived.” But survived he has, and if some big vested interest was indeed behind all his woes, it just may be too late for such a force to stop an idea whose time may have come. Powerful allies are now rallying to his cause. For example, Gray was nominated for “Inventor of the Year” by the Los Angeles patent Attorney’s Association last February.
Two highly respected scientists, Dr. Norm Chalfin and Dr. Gene Wester of California Institute of Technology have publicly endorsed Gray’s motor. Dr. Chalfin was present when Gray demonstrated the latest working model in front of a stockholders’ meeting. “There is no motor like this in the world”, Dr. Chalfin told the group. “Ordinary electric motors use continuous power. In this system, energy is used only during a small fraction of a millisecond. Energy not used is returned to an accessory battery for reuse. “It is cool-running”, Dr. Chalfin added, putting his hand on the motor. “There is no loss of energy in the system.”
Dr. Chalfin has placed his own considerable prestige on the line by writing the text for Gray’s patent applications, the uneducated inventor finding the task of technical writing beyond him. At the same meeting, Dr. Gerald Price, Gray’s patent counsel, told the stockholders: “For discovering a new form of electric power, Mr. Gray has been nominated for the annual award presented by the patent lawyers of Southern California. Looking forward to prospects of a brighter future, Gray says he wants to get the EMS motor into production and prove he has discovered more than even his backers understand.
Gray is advised by his lawyers to make no claims. However, this reporter who has followed Gray’s work for four years has seen and heard enough to feel safe in saying that the inventor may be unlocking the key to a natural phenomenon referred to as “ball lightning”.
With the combined use of a capacitor discharge and spikes of energy made up of mixed static and direct current, Gray conceivably could get more out of a battery than a battery has stored in it, simply because he is tapping the he reservoir of static electricity in the atmosphere as his motor runs. [ see Tesla’s Lost Inventions ]
Scientists balk at his theory, but some day Ed Gray may back them down another notch, he has already proved right about the capacitor discharge motor idea. With that, has motor already is revolutionary — it runs cool. That in itself could solve a myriad of heat-resistance problems for industry. Cool running parts do not experience the intense friction and wear out as quickly as overheated parts do.
If Ed Gray’s motor makes its final breakthrough and goes into general production, it may make the one-time dropout into a giant in history. It also could be a massive boon to mankind in the following ways: It could power every auto, truck, airplane, train and ship without using a drop of gasoline, kerosene or diesel fuel. It could cool or heat every American home at a fraction of the present day cost. It could power the engines of heavy industry — likewise cheaply. And it could accomplish all this without spitting a single speck of pollution into the earth’s atmosphere.
One question remains: how did Edwin Gray, an unschooled tinkerer, bring together certain facts of technology and nature into a device beyond the capabilities of brilliant, richly subsidized scientists? Dr. Norm Chalfin has perhaps provided the answer. He says Gray’s lack of formal education actually benefited him in his development of the EMS motor. “Someone trained in electronics simply would have looked at the concept and said it cannot work”, Dr Chalfin said. “Gray did not know this, and he made it work. As a result, he has provided the world with a totally new and exciting technology.”
The inventor was Nikola Tesla, his drawing passed on by Alexei Poppoff after attending one of Tesla’s lectures, and developed by Ed’s next-door neighbour Marvin Cole.